Processors

AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X logo

Ryzen Threadripper 3960X

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AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X logo

Component specifications

Desktop
Used in
AMD
Factory
sTRX4
Socket
Q4 2019
Launched
AMD Threadripper
Series Name
Castle Peak
Core Family Name
3.8 GHz
Clock
4.5 GHz
Turbo Clock
24
Cores
48
Threads
280 W
Thermal Design Power (TDP)
512 GB
Maximum supported RAM
7 nm
Lithography
24 × 32 kB
L1 Instruction Cache
24 × 32 kB
L1 Data Cache
24 × 512 kB
L2 Cache
8 × 16 MB
L3 Cache
Yes
ECC Supported
Yes
Multithreading Supported
Overall Score 21695
Benchmark Score 56491
Single Thread Score 2693.7
Future proof 82%

About AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X

AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X is processor manufactured by AMD and launched in Q4 2019 . It's using sTRX4 socket. It has 24 cores and 48 threads with clock of 3.8 GHz that can turbo clock itself to 4.5 GHz . This processor is used in Desktop devices and can consume up to 280 watts of power .

Component performance

57350.5 MB/s
Encrypting Data
867.9 MB/s
Compressing Data
96.4 thousand/s
String objects sorting
421.9 millions/s
Prime numbers generation
197210 millions/s
Mathemathic operations (integer)
115206 millions/s
Mathemathic operations (float)

Compatible graphic cards

Graphic cards that best works with Ryzen Threadripper 3960X on 1920 × 1080 (FHD (1080p)) resolution in general tasks.

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3090 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3090 Ti logo

GeForce RTX 3090 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2022
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1560 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
1560 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
450 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6950 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6950 XT logo

Radeon RX 6950 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2022
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1925 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
1925 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
335 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 Ti logo

GeForce RTX 3080 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1370 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
1370 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
350 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3090 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3090 logo

GeForce RTX 3090

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1400 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
1400 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
350 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT logo

Radeon RX 6900 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1825 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
1825 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
300 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 logo

GeForce RTX 3080

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1440 MHz
Core Clock
10240 MB
Memory
1440 MHz
Core Clock
10240 MB
Memory
320 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6800 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6800 XT logo

Radeon RX 6800 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
2015 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
2015 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
300 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 Ti logo

GeForce RTX 3070 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1575 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1575 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
290 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA RTX A5000 logo NVIDIA RTX A5000 logo

RTX A5000

Workstation
Used in
Q2 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1170 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
1170 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
230 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 logo

GeForce RTX 3070

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1500 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1500 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
220 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti logo

GeForce RTX 2080 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2018
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1350 MHz
Core Clock
11264 MB
Memory
1350 MHz
Core Clock
11264 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA RTX A6000 logo NVIDIA RTX A6000 logo

RTX A6000

Workstation
Used in
Q1 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1410 MHz
Core Clock
49152 MB
Memory
1410 MHz
Core Clock
49152 MB
Memory
300 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6800 logo AMD Radeon RX 6800 logo

Radeon RX 6800

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1815 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
1815 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060 Ti logo

GeForce RTX 3060 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1410 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1410 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
200 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA TITAN RTX logo NVIDIA TITAN RTX logo

TITAN RTX

Workstation
Used in
Q4 2018
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1350 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
1350 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
280 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA TITAN V logo NVIDIA TITAN V logo

TITAN V

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1200 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
1200 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6750 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6750 XT logo

Radeon RX 6750 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2022
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
2150 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
2150 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA Quadro RTX 6000 logo NVIDIA Quadro RTX 6000 logo

Quadro RTX 6000

Workstation
Used in
Q4 2018
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1440 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
1440 MHz
Core Clock
24576 MB
Memory
295 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER logo

GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1650 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1650 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6700 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6700 XT logo

Radeon RX 6700 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
2321 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
2321 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
230 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA RTX A4000 logo NVIDIA RTX A4000 logo

RTX A4000

Workstation
Used in
Q2 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
735 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
735 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
140 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon PRO W6800 logo AMD Radeon PRO W6800 logo

Radeon PRO W6800

Workstation
Used in
Q2 2021
Launched
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 logo

GeForce RTX 2080

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2018
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1515 MHz
Core Clock
8096 MB
Memory
1515 MHz
Core Clock
8096 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA TITAN Xp COLLECTORS EDITION logo NVIDIA TITAN Xp COLLECTORS EDITION logo

TITAN Xp COLLECTORS EDITION

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1405 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
1405 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti logo

GeForce GTX 1080 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1480 MHz
Core Clock
11264 MB
Memory
1480 MHz
Core Clock
11264 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA TITAN Xp logo NVIDIA TITAN Xp logo

TITAN Xp

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1405 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
1405 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 SUPER logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 SUPER logo

GeForce RTX 2070 SUPER

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1605 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1605 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
215 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060 logo

GeForce RTX 3060

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1320 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
1320 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
170 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 5700 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 5700 XT logo

Radeon RX 5700 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2019
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1605 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1605 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
225 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon VII logo AMD Radeon VII logo

Radeon VII

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1400 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
1400 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
300 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 5700 XT 50th Anniversary logo AMD Radeon RX 5700 XT 50th Anniversary logo

Radeon RX 5700 XT 50th Anniversary

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2019
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1680 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1680 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
235 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6650 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6650 XT logo

Radeon RX 6650 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2022
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x8
Motherboard Bus
2055 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
2055 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
176 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 SUPER logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 SUPER logo

GeForce RTX 2060 SUPER

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1407 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1407 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
175 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA Quadro RTX 5000 logo NVIDIA Quadro RTX 5000 logo

Quadro RTX 5000

Workstation
Used in
Q1 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1620 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
1620 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
230 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 logo

GeForce RTX 2070

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2018
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1410 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1410 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
175 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT logo

Radeon RX 6600 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x8
Motherboard Bus
1968 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1968 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
160 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA Quadro RTX 4000 logo NVIDIA Quadro RTX 4000 logo

Quadro RTX 4000

Workstation
Used in
Q1 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1005 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1005 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
160 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 logo NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 logo

GeForce GTX 1080

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2016
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1607 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1607 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
180 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon Pro W5700 logo AMD Radeon Pro W5700 logo

Radeon Pro W5700

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1243 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1243 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
205 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA Quadro P6000 logo NVIDIA Quadro P6000 logo

Quadro P6000

Workstation
Used in
Q4 2016
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1417 MHz
Core Clock
24000 MB
Memory
1417 MHz
Core Clock
24000 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX Vega 64 logo AMD Radeon RX Vega 64 logo

Radeon RX Vega 64

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1247 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1247 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
295 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 5700 logo AMD Radeon RX 5700 logo

Radeon RX 5700

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2019
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1465 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1465 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
180 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti logo

GeForce GTX 1070 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1607 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1607 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
180 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 6600 logo AMD Radeon RX 6600 logo

Radeon RX 6600

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2021
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x8
Motherboard Bus
1626 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1626 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
132 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 logo NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 logo

GeForce RTX 2060

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2019
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1365 MHz
Core Clock
6144 MB
Memory
1365 MHz
Core Clock
6144 MB
Memory
160 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon Pro WX 8200 logo AMD Radeon Pro WX 8200 logo

Radeon Pro WX 8200

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2018
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1200 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
1200 MHz
Core Clock
8192 MB
Memory
230 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 Ti logo NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 Ti logo

GeForce GTX 980 Ti

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2015
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1076 MHz
Core Clock
6144 MB
Memory
1076 MHz
Core Clock
6144 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon RX 5600 XT logo AMD Radeon RX 5600 XT logo

Radeon RX 5600 XT

Desktop
Used in
Q1 2020
Launched
PCIe 4.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1130 MHz
Core Clock
6144 MB
Memory
1130 MHz
Core Clock
6144 MB
Memory
150 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Radeon Vega Frontier Edition logo AMD Radeon Vega Frontier Edition logo

Radeon Vega Frontier Edition

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2017
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1382 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
1382 MHz
Core Clock
16384 MB
Memory
350 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
NVIDIA TITAN X logo NVIDIA TITAN X logo

TITAN X

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2016
Launched
PCIe 3.0 x16
Motherboard Bus
1417 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
1417 MHz
Core Clock
12288 MB
Memory
250 W
Thermal Design Power TDP

Average frames per second

Ryzen Threadripper 3960X can run games with frames per second ranging from 383.3 FPS up to 1103.7 FPS depending on game settings.

  • On ultra settings this processor can achieve on average around 383.3 FPS .
  • On high settings this processor can achieve on average around 719.2 FPS .
  • On medium settings this processor can achieve on average around 897.6 FPS .
  • On low settings this processor can achieve on average around 1103.7 FPS .

Frames per second calculator

game Grand Theft Auto V

Processor AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X

Number of frames per second for AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X processor in Grand Theft Auto V game. When there isn't bottleneck in configuration, AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X can achieve from 513.7 FPS up to 2877.6 FPS frames per second while running Grand Theft Auto V game.

  • On ultra settings AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X can achieve from 513.7 FPS up to 999.3 FPS , with average around 694.6 FPS .
  • On high settings AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X can achieve from 963.8 FPS up to 1875.0 FPS , with average around 1303.2 FPS .
  • On medium settings AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X can achieve from 1202.8 FPS up to 2340.1 FPS , with average around 1626.5 FPS .
  • On low settings AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3960X can achieve from 1479.1 FPS up to 2877.6 FPS , with average around 2000.1 FPS .

Similar processors

AMD EPYC 7443P logo AMD EPYC 7443P logo

EPYC 7443P

Server
Used in
Q2 2021
Launched
SP3
Socket
2.9 GHz
Clock
24
Cores
200 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
2.9 GHz
Clock
4 GHz
Turbo Clock
24
Cores
48
Threads
AMD Ryzen 9 5950X logo AMD Ryzen 9 5950X logo

Ryzen 9 5950X

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
AM4
Socket
3.4 GHz
Clock
16
Cores
105 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
3.4 GHz
Clock
4.9 GHz
Turbo Clock
16
Cores
32
Threads
Intel Core i9-12900KS logo Intel Core i9-12900KS logo

Core i9-12900KS

Desktop
Used in
Q2 2022
Launched
LGA 1700
Socket
150 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Ryzen Threadripper PRO 3975WX logo AMD Ryzen Threadripper PRO 3975WX logo

Ryzen Threadripper PRO 3975WX

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
sWRX8
Socket
3.5 GHz
Clock
32
Cores
280 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
3.5 GHz
Clock
4.2 GHz
Turbo Clock
32
Cores
64
Threads
AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3970X logo AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3970X logo

Ryzen Threadripper 3970X

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2019
Launched
sTRX4
Socket
3.7 GHz
Clock
32
Cores
280 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
3.7 GHz
Clock
4.5 GHz
Turbo Clock
32
Cores
64
Threads
Intel Core i9-12900KF logo Intel Core i9-12900KF logo

Core i9-12900KF

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2021
Launched
FCLGA1700
Socket
241 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
Intel Core i9-12900K logo Intel Core i9-12900K logo

Core i9-12900K

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2021
Launched
FCLGA1700
Socket
241 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
AMD Ryzen Threadripper PRO 3955WX logo AMD Ryzen Threadripper PRO 3955WX logo

Ryzen Threadripper PRO 3955WX

Desktop
Used in
Q3 2020
Launched
sWRX8
Socket
3.9 GHz
Clock
16
Cores
280 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
3.9 GHz
Clock
4.3 GHz
Turbo Clock
16
Cores
32
Threads
AMD Ryzen 9 5900X logo AMD Ryzen 9 5900X logo

Ryzen 9 5900X

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2020
Launched
AM4
Socket
3.7 GHz
Clock
12
Cores
105 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
3.7 GHz
Clock
4.8 GHz
Turbo Clock
12
Cores
24
Threads
AMD Ryzen 9 3950X logo AMD Ryzen 9 3950X logo

Ryzen 9 3950X

Desktop
Used in
Q4 2019
Launched
AM4
Socket
3.5 GHz
Clock
16
Cores
105 W
Thermal Design Power TDP
3.5 GHz
Clock
4.7 GHz
Turbo Clock
16
Cores
32
Threads
Configuration Settings
Screen resolution
Required
Screen resolution image
Gaming astronaut image
video game
Required
Purpose
Required
General Tasks

General Tasks

Processor Intense Tasks

Processor Intense Tasks

Graphic Card Intense Tasks

Graphic Card Intense Tasks